A Very Brief Recent History of Business Technology Applications

In the late 1990’s technology soared. It was the era of the dot.com boom and subsequent bust. Many new software and hardware advances were adopted by large companies that began to integrate new technologies into their business processes.

Some of these technologies were on the ‘bleeding edge’ with buggy software, crashes, insufficient memory and so on. Online ‘cloud’ or web based applications were often not reliable and not user friendly.

For smaller companies without IT departments, being on the technology bleeding edge was the equivalent to living a nightmare.

Around 2003 the applications became more robust and bugs and crashes were less of a problem. Part of this progress was due to the dramatic drop in pricing for computer memory meaning that more robust programs could be run without crashing.

Also around this time many industries developed industry specific software to run businesses like car dealerships or bookstores. Called “management systems” this genre of software allowed smaller companies to combine all their processes under one program. This management software also did not require an onsite IT department to keep it running.

This vertical industry specific software was complemented by horizontal industry software such as bookkeeping and contact management software. This meant that a company could also run its books and keep track of prospects and customers in ways they were not able to do before.

Software and platform integrators stayed busy. The big drive during this period was to try to link and integrate software. For instance, management software would generate an invoice, note that it was paid and then route the data to the proper category in the general ledger through a linked accounting system.

It was clearly understood that the more integrated and “seamless” a software was, the more powerful and cost effective it could be. And since human error continued to be a major drawback to software applications, greater integration meant not only saving time and money but reducing errors.

As hardware and software improved it also became cheaper and more affordable to smaller companies. By 2005 and 2006 many of these applications became more mainstream and were used by smaller and smaller companies.

Perhaps the biggest advances during this time were web based applications. Companies could link all parts of their business online from sales and inventory to employee communications and human resources.

This shift also reduced costs from thousands of dollars for a software purchase to a monthly user’s fee making it much more affordable. These applications also eliminated a lot of paper.

By 2007 the second wave of technology upheaval had begun as smaller and smaller companies began using technology to manage and market.

Smaller companies began to sell more online and funnel new prospects to their sales department. These new technologies allowed companies to sell more by expanding their markets.

“In today’s marketplace if a retail or service business does not exploit all their potential markets then their competitors will,” says Eric Ressler of Zuniweb Creative Services, “it’s just not optional anymore.”

Across horizontal and vertical industries the key driver is strategy. Those companies with a solid strategy that is well executed are stronger competitors.

Technology is a critical component in almost all business strategies and in recent years technology has enabled businesses of all types to leverage their strengths in their respective markets.

As technology has become more user friendly it also has more users. Today one does not have to know html or coding to operate very sophisticated software and companies do not require a high level of technical expertise to run most software.

The big advantage is that the user can focus on business functions and not on user unfriendly software.

With these innovations has come a second wave revolution that is changing the way business operates today. As always, the issue is which companies take advantage of these opportunities and which do not.

As always the marketplace will ultimately decide which of these companies succeed.

Oliver Lawal: A UV Technology Innovator

Oliver Lawal is like many scientists and engineers in the UV technology field, with intellectual interests that span a wide range. At the University of Manchester England, where he studied electrical, mechanical and software engineering, “I couldn’t decide on one field of study,” recalled Lawal, “so I graduated with multiple degrees and an understanding of several areas.”

Since then, Lawal has lived and worked in six different countries and his expertise contributed to many important projects in UV technology applications. “My first involvement with UV was as a Project Manger in the United Kingdom. I worked on the first large-scale UV installation using variable power electronic ballasts driving low-pressure amalgam lamps,” remembered Lawal. After this, he worked on a UV installation at a nuclear power station in France. Lawal then went on to work on the largest UV wastewater project in the world (at that time) in Auckland, New Zealand.

All of these endeavors have contributed to Lawal’s outlook and vision for UV technology. In this growing field, technology is evolving quickly. Lawal refers to this growth as the water-energy-technology nexus. “We have the ability to help ensure sustainability of our most precious resources for future generations by developing better and better technical solutions to our water and energy stresses,” commented Lawal.

Oliver Lawal’s family has been involved with the energy industry for some time. His grandfathers were motor sport enthusiasts and this helped to stimulate his initial interest in technology and engineering. Yet it was Lawal’s parents’ interest in environmental issues that ultimately led him to a career in water. He recalls his father’s comments about the difference in experiencing oil or water shortages expressed this way: “If we run out of oil tomorrow, we’ll all be driving electric cars. But, if we run out of clean water tomorrow, driving will be the least of our problems.”

Lawal’s professional life is challenging and rewarding. Today, he’s a board member with International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) and he is president of Aquionics Inc., a company with a 30-year track record in selling and maintaining UV water disinfection technology to municipal and industrial water and wastewater markets in North America. Lawal shares a birthday with Amelia Earhart, and he professes to have the same sense of adventure as her. In his leisure time, he enjoys riding motorcycles and driving racecars, activities that reinforce his passions for technology and adventure.

The UV technology industry has changed since he began his career in the late 90s and it will continue to evolve. “From the perspective of equipment design and operation there is no question that our ability to more accurately predict and control process performance has increased dramatically,” notes Lawal. New techniques such as computational fluid dynamics, microbiological assays, power control and UV-C monitoring are more refined and more commonplace now. “This has resulted in great improvements in energy consumption and a reduction in operational risk,” observes Lawal.

Lawal believes that growth and improvement in UV water disinfection technology has a direct impact on the public health, by controlling pathogens in public water and wastewater supplies. “The sheer breadth of applications seen today, targeting very specific results, is staggering,” says Lawal. “The reduction of endocrine disrupting compounds, total organic compounds, ozone, chloramine, chlorine, cryptosporidium and viruses are commonplace and the applications using them expanding,” he added. Applications that are directly impacted include: ballast water, combined sewage overflows, aquatics, hydraulic fracturing, medical devices, semi-conductors, pharmaceuticals and more.

As president of a leading provider of UV technology, Lawal maintains a focused approach with a close eye towards ethical concerns. “It is important that we do not take shortcuts for short term commercial gains,” he says. “As the sphere and influence of UV technology grows, and new technical solutions like UV-LED’s become available, we need to ensure all stakeholders: regulators, process designers and users understand the critical issues. Regulation is important – it must be robust yet enabling. Process design must be sound and ensure seamless integration with other technologies. And ultimately the technology must be executed in a manner that allows safe and reliable operation.”

There is no doubt that the cleanliness of water impacts the lives of people worldwide. By focusing his life’s work on improving the quality of public water and wastewater with UV technology, Lawal is reiterating his parents’ vision for a cleaner environment and taking the necessary actions to implement this by working towards these goals on a daily basis.

Semiconductor Technology – Applications and Operations Behind Different Types

Semiconductors will not function if they do not possess electrical conductivity. The system takes place in the conductor’s connection with the insulator. This is perhaps the most basic among a list of assumptions behind semiconductor technology. But since this is very basic, there are yet other principles to take note of. In this regard, it pays to take a glimpse of the semiconductor types that are significant in some enterprises.

Semiconductors are very essential in technological advancements especially in mobile phone, computer, television and radio production. They are also highly crucial in production of transistors. In understanding more about semiconductor technology, it pays to take a look at its four types.

First kind of semiconductor – intrinsic

An intrinsic semiconductor is sometimes known as the purest of all semiconductor types. It contains thermal materials that have the ability of lessening covalent bonds as they freed electrons. Part of its work is to go to a solid mass for the support of electric component conductivity. In situations where the covalent bonds lose their electrons, electrical properties of the semiconductor will get affected.

Second kind of semiconductor – extrinsic

Aside from the intrinsic semiconductor there is also the extrinsic semiconductor. When compared to the intrinsic version, the semiconductor technology for extrinsic semiconductors rely upon doped or added particles. With this fact, it is also known as a doped semiconductor. The additional particles play a vital role in transforming the conductivity characteristics of the electrical component.

Here is one concrete sample for extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon, the most usual semiconductor, may be used in order to come up with a gadget. Each atom of silicon allocates four categories of valence electrons through a process known as covalent bonding. If silicon will be substituted by five valence electrons of phosphorous, four of the covalence electrons will be put together while the remaining one will be free.

Categories of extrinsic semiconductors – N-type and the P-type

Wrapping up the four classifications of semiconductors are the two sub-classes for extrinsic semiconductors. One is tagged as the N-type whereas the other is the P-type. The N-type is comprised of electrons and holes. The former plays as majority carriers while the second plays as minority carriers. This signifies that the electron’s concentrations are more than that of the holes.

As for the P-type semiconductor, it acts opposite functions with that of the N-type. To explain further, the P-type semiconductor technology contains holes that play as majority carriers while the electrons become minority role players. In some instances though, there are systems that follow a P-N Junction. This takes place when a P-type semiconductor is found at one side of the system even if the N-type was already made in the other side.