Buying a Clinical Information Technology System

Buying a clinical information technology system challenges every organization’s senior management team. Unlike other administrative applications that help manage a facility, the clinical information technology system touches directly the lives of patients and the work flow of physicians, nurses, and other clinicians. Careers and entire organizations can be ruined by poor vendor choices and botched implementations (e.g., installation of the software and hardware) and deployments (e.g., introduction of applications to end users). Poorly chosen clinical information technology systems can drive physicians to competitor institutions, impact facility accreditation, and in some cases invite litigation due to unexpected morbidity or mortality.

As frightening as this task is, the best way to be successful is to be humble. Senior executives must accept the fact that full investigation of the features and functionality of clinical information technology systems before purchase is impossible. No individual or committee has the technical expertise and available time to effectively evaluate and fully review the capabilities of a comprehensive clinical information technology system. Therefore, organizations must base their decision to purchase systems on factors that function as surrogates for the usefulness and appropriateness of the systems in its institutions. These may include such items as the source of clinical content included with the system, list of organizations using the system, and perceived ease of use of the application.

Evaluate Live Systems

Although information technology vendors utilize demonstrations of their software to educate clients about their products, viewing working systems deployed in patient care areas offers the most valuable information. Unfortunately for both vendors and purchasers, the competitiveness of the healthcare information technology marketplace, couple with the complexity of these systems, encourages vendors to showcase software products during demonstrations that are either partially completed or are in beta version.

Therefore, often what is seen in these demonstrations does not accurately represent the features and functionality currently available. It is important to take vendors at their word when they declare that the demonstrated software is representative of features and functionality under development.

Focus on Deployed Working Systems Only

To increase the probability of purchasing a product that will satisfy the needs of an organization, institutions most focus on existing, working, deployed, and implemented versions of the applications being considered for purchase. The best way to evaluate current-state versions of applications is to visit current clients of each vendor and to witness the daily use of the various applications. Organizations must be patient and allocate adequate time to see the systems working under all conditions. This includes visiting multiple hospitals and various patient care areas throughout each hospital.

Forge Solid Vendor Relationships

For most organizations, it is more prudent to engage in relationships with vendors that have established working applications that can be immediately deployed and utilized. Although working, released software will have its inevitable share of problems, it is likely there will be fewer problems and solutions will be readily found.

In some cases, it may be advantageous to engage in relationships with vendors that are offering software that hast just been released or is under development. In these instances, organizations must enter the agreement recognizing the potential benefits from such arrangements but also the problems and delays in the software that may be associated with purchasing new, untested software. Organizations that do not have extensive information technology infrastructure and departments should be wary of entering into these types of arrangements.

The following sections outline a recommended process for choosing clinical information technology for an institution.

Review and Embrace Strategic Vision

The purchase of all clinical information technology tools must be driven by the clinical strategic vision of the organization. The strategic vision represents the views and aspirations of the board of directors, the medical staff, and other clinical professionals in the organization. Clearly, cost control is always a consideration, but the importance of patient safety and quality healthcare overwhelmingly drives decision making.

Broadly Explore Options

A high level of evaluation of your organization will quickly identify the potential suppliers of the application software required. In almost all cases, there will be a relatively small number of vendors who provide software that meets the needs of an organization. Identification of these vendors can be done through a request for information process ( RFI ), searching the Internet, and contacting colleagues at institutions similar to one’s own.

Understand the Vendor

As relationships with application vendors extend far beyond the implementation phase, a strong, open, and trusting relationship is necessary to be able to ensure that implemented software will deliver the expected results to an organization. Because problems will arise, a positive relationship is required to ensure that problems are resolved. A good relationship with a vendor, as exhibited by respectful an honest interactions with all representatives of the organization, unequivocally trumps perceived advantages in features and functionality that might be seen in other products.

Evaluate The Product

The best way to evaluate clinical information technology applications is to actually see them functioning in a real working environment. Unless an organization is working as a development partner with a vendor, various client organizations, comparable to the purchasing institution, should be available to be visited to observe the applications being used by clinical professionals.

Purchasing organizations must budget more than one day to visit these client organizations and see the applications being used at a variety of times during the day. Workloads vary, with morning physician rounds often presenting the greatest demands upon systems because of their high number of new patient orders and the need for patient care documentation. In addition, evening use represents a time when information technology staffing may be low or system maintenance may occur.

Organizations should request that their representatives be allowed to visit patient care areas unencumbered and be able to ask questions of the various users of the applications. The more institutions visited, the better the information that can be collected to evaluate the applications and the vendor.

Understand Pricing

Vendor pricing is greatly influenced by the level of ongoing maintenance payments, the strategic value of the organization to the vendor, and market forces. Therefore, in negotiating products with vendors, be sure to take a very broad and considered view of the products, services, and support being provided.

Cost of ownership includes not only the purchase price of the software but also the ongoing maintenance fee to the vendor and the cost of implementing, deploying, and maintaining the system during its life. Finally, the importance of the quality of the relationship with the vendor cannot be overemphasized, as it will have the greatest impact on the success of implementation and, eventually,clinician adoption.

Secure Adoption

Implementing clinical information technology without broad involvement and support by the clinical staff-requiring focus on all stakeholders, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health professionals-all but guarantees a failed and wasteful deployment. Clinical information technology systems alone do not fix clinical problems, advance safety, or reduce costs by themselves. These systems provide tools that can be used by clinicians to change how they deliver care. Only with clinician creativity, insight, and experience molding the implementation can new processes deployed with these tools deliver acceptable work flows and generate good outcomes.

If deployment is poor and disruptive, clinicians will create work-arounds to these failing system processes, a development that guarantees medical errors and unacceptable waste. By securing adoption, organizations can be assured of usable systems that are embraced by clinicians and that are able to deliver expected and much-needed clinical and financial outcomes.

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Semiconductor Technology – Applications and Operations Behind Different Types

Semiconductors will not function if they do not possess electrical conductivity. The system takes place in the conductor’s connection with the insulator. This is perhaps the most basic among a list of assumptions behind semiconductor technology. But since this is very basic, there are yet other principles to take note of. In this regard, it pays to take a glimpse of the semiconductor types that are significant in some enterprises.

Semiconductors are very essential in technological advancements especially in mobile phone, computer, television and radio production. They are also highly crucial in production of transistors. In understanding more about semiconductor technology, it pays to take a look at its four types.

First kind of semiconductor – intrinsic

An intrinsic semiconductor is sometimes known as the purest of all semiconductor types. It contains thermal materials that have the ability of lessening covalent bonds as they freed electrons. Part of its work is to go to a solid mass for the support of electric component conductivity. In situations where the covalent bonds lose their electrons, electrical properties of the semiconductor will get affected.

Second kind of semiconductor – extrinsic

Aside from the intrinsic semiconductor there is also the extrinsic semiconductor. When compared to the intrinsic version, the semiconductor technology for extrinsic semiconductors rely upon doped or added particles. With this fact, it is also known as a doped semiconductor. The additional particles play a vital role in transforming the conductivity characteristics of the electrical component.

Here is one concrete sample for extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon, the most usual semiconductor, may be used in order to come up with a gadget. Each atom of silicon allocates four categories of valence electrons through a process known as covalent bonding. If silicon will be substituted by five valence electrons of phosphorous, four of the covalence electrons will be put together while the remaining one will be free.

Categories of extrinsic semiconductors – N-type and the P-type

Wrapping up the four classifications of semiconductors are the two sub-classes for extrinsic semiconductors. One is tagged as the N-type whereas the other is the P-type. The N-type is comprised of electrons and holes. The former plays as majority carriers while the second plays as minority carriers. This signifies that the electron’s concentrations are more than that of the holes.

As for the P-type semiconductor, it acts opposite functions with that of the N-type. To explain further, the P-type semiconductor technology contains holes that play as majority carriers while the electrons become minority role players. In some instances though, there are systems that follow a P-N Junction. This takes place when a P-type semiconductor is found at one side of the system even if the N-type was already made in the other side.

Importance of Web Technology Applications in Pharmaceutical Meetings

With many companies in the industry falling short of new and unique compound it is harder for pharmaceutical companies to continue to fork out the billions of dollars in development as in the past. The time taken for a new drug to get the regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is on an average ten to fifteen years and estimated one million dollar.. With each delay making a blow to the profitability of the concern, the industry is forced to rely on web technology applications to speed up the other processes.

The primary step to be taken by these companies is to introduce the web technology applications in pharmaceutical meetings that enable the participants to have a better understanding on the business needs and to quickly identify the opportunities and advancements made in the technology. With web application tools like teleconferencing and video conferencing creating a stage for easy communication irrespective of the geographical location of the participants of the meeting, the employment of advanced technologies can eradicate the barriers of time.

The pharmaceutical meetings have introduced web technology applications to conduct web seminars or the Webinars. With the pharmaceutical companies using a mix of biology and chemistry, there are loads that each need to be informed about. With web conferencing giving access to the participants to watch an online presentation, besides the facility of sharing desktop, these group presentations and meetings create an effective output. The interaction between the participants gets enhanced when the query put forward by one finds an immediate solution from another.

The platform created by the web technology applications in pharmaceutical meetings permits the meeting and chatting of scientists from any field irrespective of their place of location. The time and cost savings spared through web application-employed meetings is immense.

The whiteboards are a great way for conceptualizing the ideas of the members of the pharmaceutical meetings. Identification of the tools used by others and ways for improving these ensures better outcome. The drawing and annotation tools like the pencils, pens and virtual sticky notes offer an interesting way of carrying out detailed discussions by the members. The web technology applications are also used by the pharmaceutical companies to share a document to which access to a restricted few permits the opportunity to make modifications to the document on a real-time basis, creating a great stage for follow-up.